Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Stakeholder Management and Addition Samples †

Question: Talk about the Stakeholder Management and Addition. Answer: Partner's administration Partners are bunches influenced by a venture in one manner or the other (Morgan, Pritchard and Piggott 2003). For this situation, partners are understudies, college the board, associations and organizations giving imaginative substance to general society. Understudies will discover associations and organizations from where they can look for entry level position openings and even work upon graduation. Universitymanagement will give important data to unite graduated class, who will guide and support the current understudies. Moreover, inventive organizations will have a pool of understudies from where they can pick top abilities to drive their development techniques. Moreover, the site will furnish old and current understudies with a stage to exhibit their gifts and offer their capacity to expected bosses and even get chances to organize their abilities to people in general. Worth expansion As indicated by Keeney and Keeney (2009), esteem option includes adding highlights to an essential line. The site will increase the value of understudies by giving them continuous presentation to the imaginative business. They will concentrate nearby captivating in down to earth inventive exercises. In addition, the site will assist understudy with commercializing their abilities to people in general for monetary benefits. At the point when a few understudies get a phase to recount to their story, they will outfit social acts of the general public which help unreasonable unique cultural culture. Notwithstanding uniting various understudies, there is development in social framework since various understudies stage assortment of social practices. Most importantly, understudies get chances to exhibit their abilities which at last add to their vocation and expert turn of events. They defeat stage dread other than enhancing correspondence and open talking Resourcing Assets are extremely essential in driving advancement plan for people, organizations, and associations (Bhagavatula et al. 2010). The venture will require money related assets to structure and host the site. The site will likewise expect work force to transfer imaginative substance and handle requests from the partners. We will demand the college through the inventive office to back site structuring and facilitating. Since the undertaking straightforwardly cooks for understudy government assistance, we will demand the head of understudy government assistance to recruit and train one individual who will deal with requests as understudies will be in class. Aside from the college, the innovative understudies will likewise buy in to the site where they will pay a little charge to arrange imaginative occasions for aptitudes advancement. The old understudy can support open stages where understudies will exhibit their social moves, plays and even dramatization to construct their abilities a nd furthermore get salary from section charges (Barrowclough and Kozul-Wright 2008). References Barrowclough, D. what's more, Kozul-Wright, Z. eds., 2008.Creative ventures and creating nations: voice, decision and financial development. Taylor Francis. Bhagavatula, S., Elfring, T., Van Tilburg, A. what's more, Van De Bunt, G.G., 2010. How social and human capital impact opportunity acknowledgment and asset assembly in India's handloom industry.Journal of Business Venturing,25(3), pp.245-260. Keeney, R.L. also, Keeney, R.L., 2009.Value-centered reasoning: A way to imaginative dynamic. Harvard University Press. Morgan, N.J., Pritchard, A. also, Piggott, R., 2003. Goal marking and the job of the partners: The instance of New Zealand.Journal of get-away marketing,9(3), pp.285-299.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Importance of Oil And Gas Law As A Distinct Subject

Question: Depict the lawful part of oil and gas industry? Answer: Presentation There various kinds of enactment are relevant in the business of oil and gas. The global business intervention is assuming a noteworthy job in the gas and oil industry. Then again, the gas and oil industry incorporates numerous hazardous, perplexing and costly tasks which exist for an extensive stretch. So as to connect with different gatherings in these activities, unique agreements have an individual task to carry out in the gas and oil industry. The unpredictability of the tasks makes numerous sorts of questions in the administration of the gas and oil industry. Then again, there are different sorts of debates recognized in the gas and oil industry, for example, claims identifying with amount and nature of merchandise, master assurance, asserts over power, gear related cases, protection issue, and global marine. The greater part of the gatherings of oil and gas industry incline toward the concurred debate goals (ADR) process as opposed to lead it to national courts. Additionally, the global assertion incorporates a few stages, for example, the economy, simple authorization, impartiality, and quickness. Along these lines, it is progressively desirable over prosecution. Likewise, discretion is viewed as secret, reasonable and non-ill-disposed for gatherings and they make a goals of their debates (Born, 2009). Effect of considerable principles of universal law on oil and gas industry With the assistance of understanding of the gatherings, the lawful structure and rules of pertinent law to the components of universal oil and gas industrys questions. As indicated by the Art.28 (1) of the mediation demonstration, the debates in agreement including rules of law by the occasions as proper to the components of the questions (Case Law, 2015). The assignment of law or any legitimate framework ought to be either finished up or communicated by the gatherings in oil and gas industry. The useful standards of worldwide principle are powerful to express the issue of oil and gas industry. The assurance of worldwide law is significant so as to use the considerable standards in the questions of gas and oil industry. With the assistance of chain of command recourses, the law ought to be led, and the national law will apply includes the entirety of the guidelines of that law. Aside from that, the gatherings of the oil and gas industry can choose or turn into the judges, and they wi ll choose to apply the non-national, intercontinental and global down to earth rules or the standard estimation of universal law of oil and gas industry (Zedalis, 2012). All previously mentioned reference are significant for material considerable guidelines of the global law. It is exceptionally noteworthy to advise that the Russian gatherings once in a while utilize the picked appropriate law rather than the lawful framework. Then again, the legal counselors for the oil and gas industry are assuming a huge job in this segment. The vast majority of the legal counselors prescribe against the references to the arrangements of meaningful principles of the universal law. Aside from that, the general principals of universal law are chiefly led by the referees and judges to maintain a strategic distance from the troubles of inward debates of the oil and gas industry (Oshionebo, 2007). Based on general principals of law, the gatherings of oil and gas industry lead towards the development of a framework and they are searching for the de-nationalize material law. The global law is relevant on account of agreement relationship; also, the principals of law ought not be utilized when the gatherings are explicitly concurred about the distinguishing proof of debates. Besides, that sort of understanding can't be forestalled to apply, and it was demonstrated by the specific honors of arbitral. The constraint of internationalization could be found in the open request of the discussion states court or the fundamental standards; the remote choice would be perceived and implemented by either legal or arbitral so as to determine the questions in the gas and oil industry (Karataeva, 2014). The key principals of agreement development in worldwide business exchanges in the oil and gas part So as to concentrate on the cross-outskirt offer of merchandise, the lawful parts of worldwide business exchanges are assuming a critical job. The agreements for the global offer of merchandise was presented in 1988, and the United Nations Convention checked on it with 73 nations had affirmed it. Moreover, the development of the agreements for the worldwide arrangement of assets and an extensive lawful code of universal law were overseen through the foundation of the conversation(Galante, 2013). Furthermore, the legitimate commitment of purchaser and vender additionally settled with the assistance of that discussion. Also, the principals of universal business exchange decide the break of agreement and other agreement related angles. Then again, a milestone is introduced by the agreements for the worldwide offer of products in the strategy of worldwide combination of law. In any case, it is unsurprising that over 75% of every single worldwide deal exchanges are possibly constrained by the understandings for the global sell-offs of properties. Aside from that, the most huge arrangements of rules are considered by the UNIDROIT principals on the universal business contracts. Likewise, the gatherings of the oil and gas industry who follow the global agreement can decide to manage their understanding. Both the agreements for the global offer of products (CISG) and UNIDROIT contract principals have their individual task to carry out in the universal business exchange and worldwide exchange. A specific accentuation is related to the worldwide law and intervention practice. (Best of the oil gas law colloquium, 2013) Discussing the key global law principals and patterns, both impact the legitimate parts of oil and gas industry. As indicated by the principals of worldwide law, the agreement incorporates some successful factors, for example, licenses, grants, approval and transitory grants which are required by rules and guideline of the gas and oil industry. The permit is significant so as to incline products. The permit mirrors the endorsement of government alongside authorization. The permit ought to be safeguarded cautiously (Palazzo Almada and Parente, 2013). Then again, the grants are assuming a huge job in the oil and gas industry. As indicated by the appropriate law, the license is required to maintain the business easily with no legitimate issues. Along these lines, the universal business exchanges and key global law principals impact the guidelines and guideline of the oil and gas part. Universal law and natural effect of the oil investigation and misuse Because of the oil investigation, the earth is a lot of dirtied and harmed. As per the global law, the oil and gas industry puts additional consideration on the oil investigation. The hazardous poisonous corrosive is created by the oil investigation, and it is blended in the close by water. The physical harm happened for the two creatures and human because of the poisonous corrosive. The water is being dirtied which utilized in the cropland. So as to continue the yields are required for the human. Because of the impact of harmful corrosive, the yields convey different sorts of illness, for example, hepatitis A, looseness of the bowels, lead harming, polyomavirus contamination, etc(Best of the oil gas law colloquium, 2013). Then again, the concoction parts in the fluid natural wastages make a natural blend which contaminated the water of lakes and waterway. The water of the waterway is utilized as the savoring water numerous zones. As to investigation and boring the recourses of that drinking water is being dirtied. Accordingly, the human is influenced, and they experience the ill effects of various diseases(Smith, 2013). Aside from that, the oil investigation drives the dirt contamination moreover. Many oil organizations drill the downpour backwoods so as to broaden their business and increment nature contamination. Because of the water contamination angles are biting the dust, and numerous individuals need to confront budgetary issues which manage it. The deforestation is one of the huge reasons for the earth pollution(Makuch and Pereira, 2012). A wide scope of timberland had been cut off by the oil organizations to grow their business. Then again, the wood is utilized for the streets, fuel, developme nt, and furniture. Additionally, the impact of oil contamination on the human culture is critical issue. So as to control the natural contamination, the World Health Organization and worldwide law execute some powerful guidelines and guideline. As per the appropriate law, the oil organizations needs to clean all underground passages, loads and depletes to natural wastages expulsion. The laborers should give more consideration to the earth issues. They should work all the more genuinely and put wastages at legitimate places and take assurance from those infective natural wastages so as to keep up their state of being. In this way, the oil investigation and misuse impact the natural contamination yet the worldwide law forestalls the contamination through different ways(Makuch and Pereira, 2012). The significance of oil and gas law as a particular subject The gas and oil law ought to be presented in various sorts of business college, colleges and graduate schools. The understudies ought to know about the significance of oil and gas law. Numerous kinds of research demonstrated that the law is a critical subject which expands the human information about the principles and regulation(Kubasek and Silverman, 2008). Aside from that, the understudies should know the oil and gas industry since it is identified with the earth and their own lives. We as a whole knew the effect of oil and gas investigation, creation and dissemination on the earth. We ought to secure our condition with the assistance of oil and gas law. On the off chance that understudies know about the oil and gas law, at that point they can forestall the contamination by implemen

Monday, August 17, 2020

Mother Teresa Quotes

Mother Teresa Quotes We forget that forgiveness is greater than revenge. People make mistakes. We are allowed to make mistakes. But the actions we take while in a rage will haunt us forever.Pause and ponder. Think before you act. Be patient. Forgive forget. Love one and all.If you judge people, you have no time to love them. Everytime you smile at someone, it is an action of love, a gift to that person, a beautiful thing.Let us always meet each other with a smile, for the smile is the beginning of love.Let us touch the dying, the poor, the lonely and the unwanted according to the graces we have received and let us not be ashamed or slow to do the humble work.It is easy to love the people far away. It is not always easy to love those close to us.It is easier to give a cup of rice to relieve hunger than to relieve the loneliness and pain of someone unloved in our own home.Bring love into your home for this is where our love for each other must start.The most terrible poverty is loneliness and the feeling of being unloved.We ourselves feel that what we are doing is just a drop in the ocean. But the ocean would be less because of that missing drop.It is a kingly act to assist the fallen.Kind words can be short and easy to speak, but their echoes are truly endless.I have found the paradox, that if you love until it hurts, there can be no more hurt, only more love.Be faithful in small things because it is in them that your strength lies.Being unwanted, unloved, uncared for, forgotten by everybody, I think that is a much greater hunger, a much greater poverty than the person who has nothing to eat.If we have no peace, it is because we have forgotten that we belong to each other.Love begins at home, and it is not how much we do but how much love we put in that action.Spread love everywhere you go. Let no one ever come to you without leaving happier.We need to find God, and he cannot be found in noise and restlessness. God is the friend of silence. See how nature trees, flowers, grass- g rows in silence; see the stars, the moon and the sun, how they move in silence We need silence to be able to touch souls.Peace begins with a smile.Even the rich are hungry for love, for being cared for, for being wanted, for having someone to call their own.If you cant feed a hundred people, then feed just one.Let us touch the dying, the poor, the lonely and the unwanted according to the graces we have received and let us not be ashamed or slow to do the humble work.Let us not be satisfied with just giving money. Money is not enough, money can be got, but they need your hearts to love them. So, spread your love everywhere you go.Intense love does not measure, it just gives.I want you to be concerned about your next door neighbor. Do you know your next door neighbor?We shall never know all the good that a simple smile can do.I try to give to the poor people for love what the rich could get for money. No, I wouldnt touch a leper for a thousand pounds; yet I willingly cure him for the love of God.There must be a reason why some people can afford to live well. They must have worked for it. I only feel angry when I see waste. When I see people throwing away things that we could use.The greatest destroyer of peace is abortion because if a mother can kill her own child, what is left for me to kill you and you to kill me? There is nothing between.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Abnormal Psychology Mental Disorders Essay - 2400 Words

Abnormal Psychology: Mental Disorders Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a disorder that can effect anyone. It is the greatest the greatest disorder that effects teenagers. When someone is effected by the disorder it is not just that one person that has to learn to deal with it, the families of the patients must also learn to deal with it. There are many possible causes for the disorder with many doctors believing that there is more than one cause. What has been thought as the main cause for many years is a chemical imbalance in the brain. This could be an imbalance in the number of neurotransmitters and/or an imbalance in the amount of dopamine. Stress is not thought of as directly causing Schizophrenia, but often†¦show more content†¦Families also must play a key role in watching over the patient while there are undergoing treatment which usually consist taking medication in different amount until the proper amount is found. The constant research going on leads to putting more pieces of the puzzle together all the time. Using EEG ¹s it was found that the impulses sent by the brain to other parts of the body are not normal in people with schizophrenia. It has also been found that there are definitely abnormalities in the proteins of those suffering from the disease. Bipolar Disorder Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder in which the effects who a person feels about the world around and even themselves. It makes them feel depressed and if left untreated suicide is often the result. Around 1.5% of the population is effect by some type of the disorder. Unlike many other disorders, bipolar effects a higher percent of those with a higher social status. Bipolar disorder usually comes on while the person is in their early twenties. It is thought that the disorder is  ³polygenetic ² meaning dependent upon several genes. This conclusion was reached because child who have parents with the disorder are up to twenty times more likely to suffer from it. Though the disorder can cause serious problems, many famous and successful people have suffered from it including Ernest Hemingway and Vincent Van Gogh. One of the major steps in treating some one withShow MoreRelatedAbnormal Psychology - Film Review - Mental Disorders in Fight Club1563 Words   |  7 Pagesand begins to realize that Tyler is a split personality of his own personality. The Jack/Tyler character in Fight Club can’t but be considered mentally unbalanced when a proper comparison is made to the characteristics of those said to be in good mental health. Jack/Tyler simply doesn’t feel good about himself; which is seen in the beginning of the movie when he’s attending a series of support groups for people suffering from a variety of health problems. His ambition is to feel something; to escapeRead MoreAbnormal Psychology Essay1646 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract The following paper includes such topics of normal and abnormal psychology. Discussed with these topics are definitions of each as well as the similarities and differences between them both. Included here also is a discussion and explanation of two mental disorders and two mental illnesses all taken from the psychology perspective. As the reader will see, normal and abnormal psychology as well as the mental disorders and illnesses are common issues that could happen to any person or affectRead MoreAbnormal Psychology and Therapy: Physical Illnesses and Disorders1228 Words   |  5 PagesAbnormal Psychology and Therapy If you have an infection, you go to the doctor. There are many different treatments for any number of physical illnesses and disorders, but what if the illness or disorder is in your mind? For psychology to have any validity as a science, research must show there is a common way to think, react, and feel amongst humans; uniform mental processes. So far, research has shown that one can study the behaviors of a small group and compare them to a larger population;Read MoreAbnormal Psychology1154 Words   |  5 Pages Abnormal Psychology: The field of abnormal psychology is a scientific discipline that focuses on examining the causes of mental dysfunction or abnormal behavior. Some of the major areas of study in this field include emotional disturbance, psychopathology, mental illness, and maladjustment. This scientific discipline examines abnormal behavior since such actions are expressed due to psychological dysfunction that contains some features of deviance, potential injury, and distress. As various typesRead MoreHistorical Perspectives of Abnormal Psychology1163 Words   |  5 PagesHistorical Perspectives of Abnormal Psychology Abnormal Psychology PSY 410 January 30, 2012 Historical Perspectives of Abnormal Psychology For many years, various forms of madness have been noted in every culture. Multitudes of theories, as well as some myths, have been developed to explain such conditions. Society’s opinion on what was considered abnormal was based on such phenomenon as paranormal forces, the anger of the gods, the influence of the moon, unstable personality, hereditaryRead MoreAbnormal Psychology967 Words   |  4 PagesAbnormal Psychology Roshaun Hatchett PSY/410 April 25, 2012 Dr. Christopher Daub Abnormal Psychology Abnormal psychology has been in existence for more than a century. Mental illness was approached from a spiritual point of view. Individuals of certain beliefs would misdiagnose others from the spiritual perspective and would assume that evil spirits controlled his or her’s physical, mental, and observable world (Tyrer, 2010). The following will be covered in this document: theRead MoreAbnormal Psychology Therapy1729 Words   |  7 PagesAbnormal Psychology and Therapy Paper (NAME HERE) PSY 300 July 2, 2010 Abnormal Psychology and Therapy Upon researching what the word psychology means many definitions may be found. However, once all those definitions have been deciphered you will find that psychology is the study of an individual’s mental and emotional state and thought processes. The intention of therapy within psychology is to diagnose, treat, and in time help individuals improve from whatever psychological infirmityRead MoreHistorical Perspective of Abnormal Psychology1014 Words   |  4 Pageshead: ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Historical Perspective of Abnormal Psychology [Students Name] [Name and Section no of Course] [Instructors Name] [Date] Introduction Abnormal psychology can be defined as the study of mental disorders. It includes the topics and problems that are very common in our daily lives. TV, newspapers, magazines and websites, frequently expose the cases of celebrities and famous personalities that suffer from drinking, eating or some other kind of mental disorder. TheRead MoreAbnormal Psychology1605 Words   |  7 PagesAbnormal Psychology Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior. It seeks to comprehend people by understanding mental functions and social behavior. It also explores neurobiological and physiological processes that can drive cognitive functions and behaviors. It is this drive to understand mental processes that pushes psychologists to want to learn about what is normal and abnormal behavior. People have tried for thousands of years to understand and define abnormal behavior. In the past 100Read MoreThe Effect Of Taking An Abnormal Psychology Class On Students1748 Words   |  7 Pagesnot really have any certain topic within abnormal psychology in mind. I thought the best approach was to start broad and look through articles and see if something stuck out to me as interesting or unique. By doing this method I located two very different articles on PSYCHinfo to examine. The first that I am going to be summarizing and talking about is an article that explained an experiment that was ran to test the effects of taking an abnormal psychology class on students. This experiment basically

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Drug And Alcohol Testing On The Workplace - 1663 Words

Drug and Alcohol Testing in the Workplace Due: Monday Dec 1, 2014 COMM-220-F Rebecca Walsh By Brett Tate and Brandon Bracko November 17, 14 Introduction People often question drug and alcohol testing in the work place. It is a controversial subject that has a range of mixed emotions. But where do you draw the line when it comes to crossing the boundaries of prying into one’s personal life? This report will explain the legal, and ethical issues surrounding the topic of drug and alcohol testing in the work place. Why should a company drug test? 1 in 10 workers (11%) reported using alcohol while at work and 4% reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. (Alberta Alcohol and Drug Abuse Commission, 2003). 15% of employed individuals abused drugs within the past year. (National Survey on Drug Abuse, 2008 SAMHSA) Figure 1 – Supreme Court of Canada quote regarding a workplace random alcohol test rejected by top court. January 14th, 2013. ï ¿ ¼ Legal Issues Drug testing may be one of the most argumentative issues faced by companies struggling to develop fair programs to deal with the penalties of substance abuse in the workplace. Although there are many arguments that are supportive of testing, this section will be focused on the legal issues of drug testing and how it affects the workplace. Legal issuesShow MoreRelatedIntroduction Of Drugs And Alcohol Essay1392 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction to Drugs and Alcohol 2 Overview 2 I. Workplace Factors 3 II. Workplace Performance Behavior 4 III. Workplace Role 5 RECOMMENDATION 6 Workplace Policies and Drug Testing 7 Policy and Regulations on Alcohol and drug abuse 7 Employee Education/Health Promotion 8 Works Cited 9 â€Æ' Employer’s Guide for a Drug-free Workplace Introduction to Drugs and Alcohol In order to understand drug and alcohol use, it is important to be clear about what we mean by the terms ‘drugs’ and ‘alcohol. Alcohol is a legalRead MoreWorking Under The Influence Case Study796 Words   |  4 Pagesdrinking alcohol or taking drugs. While doing such things can be fine when an employee is at home, these substances have no business in the workplace. Being under the influence at work can cause accidents, less production, tardiness or absenteeism, poor decision making, theft, and much more (â€Å"Drugs†, 2015). Employers can combat these problems by utilizing drug testing programs, establishing anti-drug abuse policies, and establishing an Employee Assistance Program. One way to address drug and alcoholRead MoreDrug Testing in the Workplace1281 Words   |  6 PagesDrug Testing in the Workplace Thesis statement: Administering a drug and alcohol policy can be challenging, but it can also be beneficial to the manufacturing company. I. Administering a drug and alcohol policy can be challenging. A. The company must comply with State and Federal laws when administering the drug and alcohol policy. B. The company must make sure the implementation of the test is done in a uniform manner. C. Some employees may bring law suits against the employerRead MoreA Substance Abuse Free Workplace983 Words   |  4 PagesA SUBSTANCE ABUSE FREE WORKPLACE 1. Describe the effect of illegal or prescription drug and alcohol use in the workplace. How does this affect productivity? Today in the United States, 73% of drug users are employed, costing American businesses billions of dollars annually in lost productivity and health care costs. Studies reveal that employees who abuse drugs have a tremendously harmful effect on the workplace—they are more likely to have extended absences from work, show up lateRead MoreDrug Abuse On The Workplace Essay1704 Words   |  7 PagesDrug Abuse in the Workplace: The human resource topic I chose to write my research paper on is â€Å"Drug Abuse in the Workplace†. Drug abuse in the workplace is something very common that many of us will encounter at some point. Alcohol and drug abuse has a major effect on employee absence and lost productively that leaves a negative working environment. It is important a company addresses the right guidelines to keep a drug free workplace. Establishing a clear and fair substanceRead MoreThe Effects Of Drug Testing On The Workplace1540 Words   |  7 Pagesinterview for a job, received a call that they were hired, and then heard their future employer say that they will have to do a drug test before they can start this new job? â€Å"Although many people think that illegal drugs such as marijuana, heroin, cocaine and other street drugs became a problem for youth in the 1960’s the truth of the matter is that there has always been a drug problem in the United States when it comes to substance a buse†( This past summer I had an interview at RusselRead MoreTypes Of A Medical Review Officer ( Mro ) Testing Programs And Require A Drug Lab Certified1674 Words   |  7 PagesMany court decisions have been ruled in favor of these guidelines. These guidelines include having a Medical Review Officer (MRO) evaluate all tests. The guidelines also identify the five specific substances for use in the Federal drug testing programs and require a drug lab certified by SAMHSA to perform the analytical test. The five substances under the SAMHSA’s guidelines are amphetamines, THC, cocaine, opiates, and phencyclidine. Amphetamines include meth, speed, crank, ecstasy, and stimulantRead MoreDrug-Free Workplace997 Words   |  4 PagesPresident Reagan signed the Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 on November 18, 1988. The intent of the bill was to establish the foundation of a drug-free workplace in the areas that the federal government could affect outside the feder al government; i.e., the workplaces of federal grantees and contractors. The Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 does not mention drug testing at all. However, many companies have made drug testing a requirement. The Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 has 7 compliance requirementsRead MoreHow Substance Abuse Can Be Harmful At The Societal And Individual Level1255 Words   |  6 Pageslevel Drug abuse is harmful to both the society and individuals themselves. The effect of drug use on individuals is that the users usually go through a wide array of physical effects such as fatigue, anxiety, depression, and flashbacks (Maisto Connors, 2014). For example, getting high with Cocaine is usually followed by â€Å"crash’ which is a period of fatigue, anxiety, and depression. In addition, there is an increase in sexual activities among drug users, and this may expose most of the drug usersRead MoreDrug Testing Program913 Words   |  4 PagesCorporation establish a drug-testing program? Castulon should establish a drug testing program because of the potential benefits that overrides the potential risks associated with such program. The bottom line of the company is profitability and stakeholder’s benefits; however, drugs do not contribute to any of these. The company relies on employee productivity, reduces employee turnover and absenteeism, reduced cases related to workers compensations. The impact of the drug testing program within the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Literary criticism †feminism Free Essays

From the very point of creation, God made no difference between man and woman – both of them were humans, created in His own image, who had to reflect the beauty of heavens on the earth and share their love with the Creator and each other. Both Adam and Eve had to work in the Garden of Eden and take care of it. Disregarding the fact that Adam was created first, Eve was made as a helper, suitable for him, as a conscious and responsible personality. We will write a custom essay sample on Literary criticism – feminism or any similar topic only for you Order Now In the second chapter of the book of Genesis, we read that God gave all commands to Adam only, so he was responsible to retell them to Eve that she could fully understand the will of God and fulfill the commandments properly. She was made for Adam to help him, and apart from all other creatures, was called â€Å"flesh of my flesh and bone of my bones† (Gen. 2:23); therefore, they both belonged to each other and supplemented each other. Keeping their individuality, Adam and Eve, at the same time, formed a new unity, and this community was so self-valuable, that for its sake â€Å"shall a man leave his father and his mother† (Gen. 2:24). On the other hand, we can see the God’s order in the family: God – man – woman. As a leader in the family, Adam, at the same time, was subordinate to God, and both man and woman were subjected to the sovereign power of Almighty God. And only after their fall, the Lord God made a clear distinction between man and woman: â€Å"thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee† (Gen.3:16b). This leading role of man is proven by the fact that Eve had fallen into temptation first, consequently breaking the God’s order on the earth. Yet, man must take the main responsibility. But if the core predestination of man is â€Å"Literary Criticism – Feminism† work, woman is predetermined to bare children, be a mother, which is bound to pain and sufferings. Being in subordination, which was based on love, the fall of man has shifted it to the dominance of man over woman. But one should remember that it was not a new covenant of God, but rather a direct result of the fall. Since considering first of all the interests of man, who was permitted to have several wives, in the marriage husband had more freedom, comparing to wife. For example, one of the Ten Commandments claims that â€Å"thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife† (Ex. 20:17), for this kind of adultery was interpreted as criminal offence on the property of another man (wife is mentioned in this text between such things as house, ox, servant). Only in Deuteronomy the same text gives wife a separate place in the list of man’s belongings. The consequences for the adultery also differed depending on the social status of woman: death to man found with a married woman; trespass offering for maidservant; marriage or money penalty for a maid. â€Å"Literary Criticism – Feminism† Such strict regulations were called to prevent divorces; yet the adultery was widespread and was mostly noted in Proverbs. The offering of jealousy (offering of memorial) testified about the male privileges: man could demand this offering if he had the slightest, even groundless, suspicion as to his wife’s behavior (water could either cause the curse or not). Men were not subjected to this test. Divorce was also a sole prerogative of man. According to Deuteronomy 24:1, he had the right to divorce with his wife, if â€Å"he hath found some uncleanness in her†. This regulation assumes a number of interpretations: if in the beginning it was enabled only in cases of wife’s bad behavior, then, in the course of time, the bill of divorcement was given to man if his wife caused the slightest displeasure. For her whole life, woman was dependant: first from father, later – from husband, and, finally, – from son, with the exception of widows, whose children were under age. This position primarily guaranteed her the sense of security. Disregarding the savage customs (Lot, who was eager to give his two daughters to sodomites – Gen. 19:8, Levite, who gave his concubine to the men of the city – Judges 19:24-26) that were caused by the fall, women in Israel had deserving and full life, they were loved and respected by their men (1-Sam. 1:5,8) and children (Ps. 35:14) and were honored with public acknowledgement and praise (Proverbs 5:18, 12:4, 18:22; Eccl. 9:9). In Israel, woman held better position, comparing to other Orient nations. Women and maids of the Old Testament could freely and unconstrainedly take part in social affairs and amenities. Sara, though she called Abram as â€Å"master†, nevertheless, had persuaded him to take a concubine (Gen. 16:1-4). Rebecca had not veiled herself until she met Isaac (Gen. 24:64). Jacob greeted Rachel with a kiss before the shepherds (Gen. 29:11). Women participated in public celebrations, the songs of Miriam, Deborah, and Hannah (Ex. 15:20, 21; â€Å"Literary Criticism – Feminism† Judges 5 chapter, 1-Samuel 2:1-10) prove the highly developed intellectual faculties. Israeli women of the Old Testament also held official positions, such as the prophetesses Miriam, Huldah and Noadiah, and Deborah, the prophetess, who judged Israel. As a wife, mother and mistress, women are depicted in the most attractable manner. Heathenism cannot show the portrait of the woman that is described in Proverbs, chapter 31. Israel was the first one, who was taught by God to look at mother’s heart, as the likeness of God’s heart: â€Å"can a woman forget her sucking child, that she should not have compassion on the son of her womb? Yea, they may forget, yet will I not forget thee† (Is. 49:15). The Law of Israel had lifted woman from that humbled state she was in heathenism. Yet, along with respect and honor, Bible gives us plain call to beware of foolish (Prov. 14:1), brawling, angry (Prov. 21:9, 19) and fair women without discretion (Prov. 11:22). First of all, woman was called to carry out duties of mother and mistress of the house. In these issues, man totally relied on her. In the house, woman could work and make decisions independently; she could manage her servants, who could belong directly to her (Gen. 16:1, 6; 29:24, 1-Sam. 25:42). Her primary responsibility was to raise children, at that mother’s covenant was equal to father’s admonitions (Prov. 1:8, 6:20). Women’s wisdom was highly valued and honored (Prov. 14:1, 31:26). Returning to Bethlehem, Naomi had the right to own the property of her husband (Ruth 4:3, 9), just as daughters had a part in father’s inheritance (Numb. 27:1-11), and Shunammite, the widow, was restored her house and field (2 Kings 8:1-6).   In contrast to men, women were not obliged to worship in the tabernacle regularly (Ex. 23:17), however, they brought the instructed sacrifices personally; they participated in celebrations and took portions of offerings. Women from priests’ families could eat offerings of the holy things; women and girls were praising the Lord with their dances and songs (Ex.15:20. Moreover, God gives especial revelations to women: the Lord has revealed the future of her sons to Rebecca – â€Å"two nations are in thy womb †¦ and the elder shall serve the younger† (Gen. 25:22, 23); Manoah’s wife was the first to receive the news about a son – â€Å"and the angel of the Lord appeared unto the woman† (Judges 13:3); along with prophets, women were used by God to reveal His will to Israel, Miriam was the first mentioned prophetess, and â€Å"Deborah, a prophetess, she judged Israel† (Judges 4:4). So, analyzing all the texts and the mentioned above, we see that there is no single opinion, regulation and voice in Bible verses, regarding to women. Yet, one text gives us clear explanation to this issue: â€Å"In those days there was no king in Israel: every man did that which was right in his own eyes† (Judges 21: 25). From human side, we had seen the difference in male attitudes towards women: in some cases that were regarded as property, in others, as humans equal or with the same social rights. Sometimes, they were treated like a thing, but, in contrast, women’s wisdom, beauty, love and meekness are considered as the greatest gifts from God to men. Anyway, in all these texts, it is obvious that â€Å"My thoughts are not your thoughts, nether are your ways My ways, saith the Lord† (Is. 55:8). Due to the fall, thoughts and ways of men were perverted and devil is still making everything possible to make them wickeder; therefore, sinless relations between man and woman were totally changed, but God still looks at them the same way – the way they should be. Angels, sent to women first, prophetess, chosen to tell the will of God, offerings, brought by women – prove that God can use them, just like men, and sometimes, women were holding the same positions, even not taking into account that God is looking at Israel, as to His children, disregarding the gender, as the whole community of children of God. Therefore, the sole contrast between men’s and God’s attitude towards women lies in the notion that the fall of man brought the difference in the world and human’s perception of woman’s ro le in the society. Works Cited: Holy Bible, King James Version. Plume, 1974. How to cite Literary criticism – feminism, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Hobbes + Machiavelli Essay Example For Students

Hobbes + Machiavelli Essay Two of the greatest philosophers of all time are Thomas Hobbes and Niccolo Machiavelli. Hobbes was born in 1588 in England, when absolutism was taking hold in Europe. His most famous work was Leviathan, written in 1651. Hobbes discussed the ideal state and innate laws of man and nature, among other things. Machiavelli was born in Italy in 1469, a time when his home country was ruled mostly by foreign powers. His hometown, Florence, was still independent. Machiavellis most famous work, The Prince, tells of his ideal state and ideal ruler. Machiavelli goes on to describe the perfect prince, a picture of cruelty and cunning. Though both genius philosophers, their views differ greatly. Hobbes believed in a minimalist government where the state only interfered with the lives of the citizens when it had to. The ideal kingdom was the kingdom of God, in Hobbes mind. In Machiavellis The Prince, he describes his ideal government with a strong monarch, and fearful subjects. In Hobbes system, a close relationship was kept with God, while in Machiavellis reason was the only rule. The most important and most dealt-with area of dialogue is the ideal government. Thomas Hobbes idea of a perfect government was one of small proportions. All of the citizens of a country had a covenant, or promise with the ruler. This covenant with the ruler stated that the citizen would give up the right to govern his or herself, and give that right to the ruler. Hobbes idea of society arises from an innate competition between every man. Everyone seeks their advantage, and is always at war with everyone else for that advantage. These factions negotiate, according to Hobbes, complying with whatever principles will ensure survival for its members. So according to Hobbes, war is the natural state of man. Peace is only had by our natural tendencies to compromise, and survive. In order to fully understand the ideal system of government described by Hobbes, one must look at what the government is trying to accomplish. Hobbes goes into a long explanation of why men are different from ants and bees. Hobbes claims that men desire honour and dignity while lesser creatures have no desire for advancement. Secondly, Hobbes believed that ants and bees had no desires beyond what was useful for the group. This competitive tendency is what keeps man constantly at war, as described above. Third, man is unique in that he has use of reason, and can see his state as imperfect. Thus, man can enter into civil war. Fourth, animals cannot express concepts like good and evil. Fifth, humans have more of a propensity to improve themselves. Ants and bees cannot become discontent with their government, as they are content. Finally, the covenant of ants and bees is innate, while the human covenant is the product of human exertion. Hobbes says that society arises from the consent of the governed people, which is gradually concentrated in larger and larger units until it comprises the state. The mutual covenant made by the state and the people cannot be broken. If the covenant is broken by the ruler, it is injustice. The people then have a right to rebel. Since each gover nment modeled on Hobbes system sets an example, their case may inspire others. For example, the Parliamentary Revolution in 1642 would lead to the American Revolution, and eventually to the French Revolution. On the contrary, the covenant is rather impossible to break on the states part, because its reasons cannot be challenged by the people. But if the state is ruling barbarically, the people are free to rebel, and do. Hobbes realized that the citizens would no longer respect the state if it was no longer protecting their interests. The social covenant comes to an end when the state exceeds its limits and begins to abuse the rights of the citizens, such as in the early Soviet Union. Niccolo Machiavellis ideal state contrasts sharply with that of Hobbes. Contrary to Hobbes minimalist government, Machiavelli believed a monarch should rule the people with great authority, and make the subjects fear the ruler. This belief that the ruler should act without compassion marks the uniquenes s in Machiavellis argument. Also, Machiavelli was the first to view human history and human society as purely of man, without supernatural influence. To begin to describe Machiavellis ideal government, men are all considered equal and driven to the same folly. From this equality, Machiavelli deduced that one can predict the future from the events of history. To relate this to government, Machiavellis prince must turn to his contemporaries for a model. In The Prince, the vast majority is a description of fifteenth century rulers. His model is personified by Cesare Borgia, an Italian duke. According to Machiavelli, the state is the highest achievement of man. The state is a progressive and elaborate creation of mans free will, and is formed by a cooperation of the people and the leader. In order for this state to function properly, it must be the highest authority, with no superior. The state must be self-sufficient, and loved by the people. Perhaps more even than loved, the state was to be feared and respected. The people must not consider or doubt any justice or injustice given by the state. Nothing is to interfere with the authority and power of the state, or the freedom will be compromised. The ultimate strength and foundation of the state is its military power. Since all humans are fickle and selfish, they will soon forget any favors done on them by the government. So according to Machiavelli, the ruler must have enough military power to back up his authority. To rationalize this apparent disregard for human will, The Prince explains that the ends justify the means. An end is a goal, something that must be reached. A mean is the ways of reaching that goal. Hence, any goal that is accomplished is justified. For example, if the end is to have a respectful and obeying population, the mean may be to occupy the cities with military personnel. Another facet of Machiavellis ideal government is virtue. To be virtuous means to have courage, talent, strength, and int elligence. To be a ruler in Machiavellis ideal government, the politician must have virtue. Another part of virtue is taking advantage of opportunity. Machiavellis ideal ruler is the subject of The Prince. The ideal ruler is described in great detail, beginning with the concept of principalities. The Prince describes four types of principalities: hereditary, mixed, new, and ecclesiastical. A principality is essentially land ruled by a prince. A hereditary principality is one passed down from past generations, and is very easy to maintain. As long as the prince follows a conservative policy, the principality should be kept. A second kind of principality is mixed. A mixed principality consists of a hereditary plus new territories added by the prince. More complex, Machiavelli offers a guide for the ideal ruler to govern these. Since new territories are apt to take up arms against the ruler, Machiavelli proposes that the conqueror should occupy the new territory. Then, the ruler should set up colonies within these new territories loyal to him. Following that, the ruler should protect the weak while oppressing the strong, all while not allowing any foreign power into the new territory. A third type of principality is a new one. Most principalities of the Renaissance fall into this category. New principalities can be divided into four subgroups: those acquired by evil, those acquired by the princes own power, those acquired by anothers power, and civic principalities. The first subgroup is acquired through evil, and is frowned upon in The Prince. Even though these rulers show creativity, and sometimes even genius; they cannot be looked upon as virtuous or good. The second subgroup is conquered with much difficulty. Machiavelli uses Cyrus, Romulus and Theseus as examples of leaders to conquer new land. The third type are as easily lost as they are won. In The Prince, Machiavelli describes Cesare Borgias losing of his territory because his fathers influence vanishes. The fourth subgroup of new principalities is civic. A civic principality is one obtained by the help of the nobles, or by popular support. This type of principality should especially be noted by the prince, as nobles often want to become master themselves. Wrestling History EssayIn The Prince, the people were to be loyal subjects, bowing before the state. They should love the state more than their very souls, and serve it to their dying days. In Machiavellis model, the people were there to carry out the wishes of the state, and to try not to injure themselves in the process. People are also important to make up the military, which is the ultimate strength of the state. In Leviathan, the people are much more important, and even sovereign within themselves. The people are trusted with a laissez-faire style of government, and bow to the ruler only for security. Hobbes and Machiavelli both had revolutionary ideas about government and the essence of Man. Hobbes grew up in England, and had ideas concerning a freer type of government. His main work was Leviathan. Machiavelli was raised in Italy, and had other ideas. Machiavelli focused on how a prince should act in governing his country. Machiavellis main work was entitled The Prince. Ironi cally, neither Machiavelli nor Hobbes suggests a total democracy or a republic, like we use today. As much as Machiavelli and Hobbes are considered great philosophers, the modern government of the United States has proved to be the best. Words/ Pages : 2,404 / 24

Sunday, March 29, 2020

Teaching Language In The United States Essay Research Paper Example For Students

Teaching Language In The United States Essay Research Paper America is a nation filled with all different types of people. People of different color, languages, traditions, and dreams. Because we are a nation of immigrants, we do not share the characteristics of race, religion, ethnicity, or native language that} form the common bonds of society in other countries (Exploring Language 252). However, by agreeing to learn and use just one single language we have been able to unite many different people and create an incredibly diverse population. Yet, why is it that United States, though filled with thousands of people who do not speak English as their first language, must have one official language, English? In California, the majority of the schools are required to teach ESL (English as a second language) to Hispanic children. These programs were created to teach Mexican immigrants English and the way the United States works. We will write a custom essay on Teaching Language In The United States Research Paper specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now All through California, you will see not just see and hear English but Spanish also. Being from California I am very familiar with this system of two different languages. I used to have a history book that had a dictionary in the back that translated the English vocabulary words into Spanish, so that those Hispanics that did not know English well could still learn. I am not sure if it is like this in Florida, where there is a large population of Philippinoes, but should there be? Should a country where their goal is to have only one language, be catering to those immigrants who come here to be free and yet are not willing to speak the native language? Many argue that the knowledge of English is not part of the formula for responsible citizenship in this country (Exploring Language 252). Others argue that anymore than one language in a country will only lead to a chaotic mess which will lead} to countless problems in the governments efforts to manage the nations business (Exploring Language 253). Therefore, should the United States be catering to the needs of the minorities and not teach them English, or should American schools continue with their ESL programs? Under the most common method of bilingual education used throughout this country, non-English-speaking students are taught all academic subjects such as math, science, and history exclusively in their native language. English is taught as a separate subject (Exploring Language 254). The problem resulting from this is that it is unable to tell if a minority child has learned enough English to be placed in entirely English speaking classes, therefore some minority children are kept in native language classes for six years (Exploring Language 254). So, is bilingual teaching effective? In the most part it is. In southern California I met a friend freshmen year of high school who knew very little English, but by the time we had graduated she could carry on a conversation with no problem. She was placed in classrooms where everything was spoken in Spanish, her native language, yet she was also taking two English classes. Maybe its not helpful for some because they are unwilling to learn our language, but for those who do come here and want to be a part of our society, they appreciate the bilingual classes and take full advantage of them. English is already the official language of the United States, so why is it that many are still arguing that we should not have bilingual classrooms in schools? And why is it that many believe that an immigrant to the U.S should know the language before they decide to come here and become a citizen? America is a land of the free, and everyone, whether born here or another country should be given a fair chance. The United States is the most prominent country in the world and has not had any drastic problems with language. Teaching bilingual education in schools is a good idea in that it gives minorities the chance to learn English and become part of a free society, something everyone loves, or dreams to have.English

Saturday, March 7, 2020

American civil war Essay

American civil war Essay American civil war Essay The American Civil War was a fought within the United States between the North and the South starting from 1861 and ending in 1865. This war was one of the most negative events in American history, yet it helped shape the character of the American individual today. The causes of Civil War can be traced back to tensions that were created early in colonial era. Mainly, the war between the two regions was caused by social, political and economic differences between the South and the North, but it is important to understand that slavery was the root of cause of these differences. Socially, the North and the South were built on different standards. The South was a slave-based community, and people were depended on slaves and accustomed to this way of life. South plantation owners had slaves working for them, and those who could not afford to own slaves would work on their own farm. The North had more immigrants settling in its areas, where labor was needed. Therefore it had a more industr ialized society where most people worked in factories. The Northerners opposed to Slavery as an institution in the South, as the Confederate States were the only region in the world that still legalized the ownership of slaves. This angered the Southerners and threatened their way of life. By time, economic differences also developed between the two regions. The Southern states were depended on agriculture rather than industrialization. After the Cotton Gin was invented, it increased the need for slaves and made cotton the chief crop of the South. The South was able to produce most worlds’ supply of cotton. This increased the South's dependence on the plantation system and its vital component, slavery. However, the North was prospering industrially. The North depended on factories and industrialized businesses. In addition, many of the new immigrants settled north, while very few settled south. This allowed the North to grow industrially, while making the South more hostile t owards them. Southern economy opposed high taxes, as manufacturing was limited. But the Northern states accepted high taxes to protect its products from cheap foreign competition. Another major problem that occurred was the competition between the North and South for more land. The expansion of America due to the lands obtained from the Louisiana Purchase and with the Mexican war, it caused the issue of whether new states would become free or slavery. This decision was important not only for the individual state making the decision but for the country as a whole. In December of 1818, a bill was placed into the hands of congressman to allow Missouri to be admitted as an independent state of the United State. The bill wanted Missouri to be permitted to have slaves. The Northern representatives did not want Missouri to have any slaves. They wanted a free state and any slaves located in the territory of Missouri to be freed. However, the Southern representatives wanted the state to ret ain their right to have slaves. The on-going debate progressed for the next two years until the creation of Missouri Compromise of 1820, which Missouri enter the union as a slave state, and Maine enter as a free state. Also, no territory above the 30-36 parallel

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Compare and contrast aspects of psychodynamic and cognitive Essay

Compare and contrast aspects of psychodynamic and cognitive theoretical approaches to counselling - Essay Example Traumatic memories of childhood are recorded in the unconscious mind and these are reminded in the individual until it becomes a cause of sickness and emotional disorders in adulthood. The belief that psychological factors can cause some sickness or malfunctioning became a popular concept during the time of Freud. Freud became phenomenal when he first announced the science of psychoanalysis. It was new then but his patients were healed and freed of their illnesses because of his precise diagnosis. Although his theory focused more on the sexual libido and the oedipal complex, they were at first unopposed and became the basis for treatment of many illnesses. Stress or anxiety, according to Freud, was a primary cause of sickness in man. Riley says that these unconscious events of the pasts were discovered through â€Å"techniques such as free association, the interpretation of dreams, thoughts and feelings emerging through reveries on the couch and nothing slips of the tongue (known as ‘Freudian slips’), misreadings and the forgetting of names† (Riley, p. 5). ... Stress can mean anxiety, arousal, fear, or burnout. This particular phenomenon causes maladies like mental illness, cancer, cardiovascular disease, but also common cold. There is a relational link between arousal and stress to metabolic rate. When we are active, or involved in sports, our metabolic rate rises, along with gross measures of the heart and respiratory rates. When stress is experienced, metabolic rate also rises. Ways to determine if an organism is activated or aroused include physiological measure, where the â€Å"organism’s overt behaviour may be used as basis for evaluation† (Pargman, 2006, p. 3). We can measure or observe the physiological component. We have the nervous system which is composed of the central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system is comprised of the brain, spinal cord and its branches. The automatic nervous system is composed of the head, pelvic, and sympathetic divisions. The three divisions of the autonomic nervous system are in counterbalancing act. They have some control on the vital functions of the body. The central nervous system on the other hand interferes in cases of emergency – it sends impulses to the autonomic system as soon as it perceives danger. The perception of fear in particular situations can provide thoughts. For example, a musician may think that he/she will not be able to perform well; she becomes afraid. This will send impulses to the brain. Anxiety may come in and the performance will be greatly affected. There are theoretical perspectives in determining stress causality, these are: psychoanalytic orientations, learning orientations, sociological orientations, and personological orientations (Pargman, 2006, p. 30). Freud called traumatic anxiety the excess libido

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Research design paper Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Design paper - Research Proposal Example United States ranks near the bottom in terms of low voter turnout2. This research seeks to institute whether campaigns, voter mobilization, voter education and voting practices and barriers affect voter turnout in presidential elections in the United States of America. The research also seeks to explain how the aforementioned variables affect voter turnout levels. Previous studies have provided some information as to why some registered citizens resolve to vote while others do not. However, such research has not explained sufficiently whether voter mobilization, voter education and voting practices and barriers affect voter turnout in presidential elections in the United States of America, and how these variables determine voter turnout levels in presidential elections. This study adopts the use of secondary sources to test hypotheses. Voter turnout in every subsequent US presidential election has been higher than the previous turnout. Finding reliable inferences pertaining to the re search question will be crucial in predicting how various factors may affect future elections. Voter outcome speculators will also be able to make their predictions with greater degrees of precision. Future researchers may use the information acquired by this study in their surveys. The findings of this study are vital because electoral bodies may also use the inferences to implement changes that will ensure high voter turnout levels in future. The key terms in this study include voter turn out and voter mobilization. Voter turnout is the absolute of people who vote in the election, mostly measured in percentage3. Voter mobilization is influencing voters to pay attention to campaigns and vote in favour of a certain party. Literature Review Voter turn out in presidential elections is determined by several factors. Eligibility formalities and campaign stimuli are some of the determinants of voter turn out. Also, stiff competition increases the chances of most of the eligible and regis tered voters to vote. The United States of America prevents many or most of the convicted offenders from voting4. Such suppressed votes may have made a substantial difference in U.S national and local electoral outcomes. There are also pitfalls over the rights of immigrants to the ballot. Most studies have taken eligibility rules as a given4. Voting participation can be determined by socioeconomic factors such as income and education. Voting registration and turnout can also be affected by the amount of campaign stimuli in the context of political mobilization5. According to Dycke-Norris, the two most important factors that affect voting are the presidential candidate and the nature of the times6. Other factors that affect voter turnout include formalities for the inclusion in the electoral registers6. However, it is important to note that the more the people are registered to vote, the larger the number of those who are likely not to vote. Consequently, this may reduce the voter tu rnout levels in an election. Competitiveness between races may lead to a high vote turnout, especially when candidates come from either of these races. Voter education also affects the level of voter turnout. For instance, it was noted that education levels of voters determined whether they turned to vote in a presidential elec

Monday, January 27, 2020

Entrepreneurial Marketing And Marketing In Small Firms

Entrepreneurial Marketing And Marketing In Small Firms Introduction: Researchers widely agree that marketing in small firms differ from that of their larger counterparts (e.g. Fillis, 2002; Gilmore et al., 2001; Hill, 2001a; Coviello et al., 2000.) Stokes (2000) adds that in small firms, marketing is used for the needs of the moment and only little attention is paid to plans, strategies and analysis. They are close to their markets, have great flexibility which they value (Evans and Moutinho, 1999), have the capacity to operate on slim margins, and can instigate decisions quickly (Rogers, 1990). The marketing function in SMEs is hindered by constraints such as poor cash flow, lack of marketing expertise, business size, tactical customer-related problems, and strategic customer-related problems (Doole et al., 2006; Chaston, 1998; Carson, 1985). Yet, despite such restrictions, SMEs successfully use marketing to generate sales (Guersen, 1997; Romano and Ratnatunga, 1995). Motwani, Jiang and Kumar (1998) highlight the differing operational priorities of small firms, (as compared with larger organisations), and synopsise small firm characteristics as follows: On the one hand, small firms are believed to have an edge over larger firms in flexibility, innovation, and overhead costs, while on the other, they are limited by the amount of market power, capital and managerial resources. Despite the differences, it has been noted that the basic marketing concepts, such as segmentation, customer orientation, targeting, positioning and seeking for competitive advantage apply to small as well as to large enterprises (Hogarth-Scott et al., 1996). Scholars note that both marketing theories and entrepreneurship theory privilege the notion of value creation, that is, the notion that elements are combined in a manner that results in the provision of value to the user (Morris et al., 2002). Marketing has much to offer the study of entrepreneurship (Murray 1981; Hills 1987) and likewise entrepreneurship can look to marketing as the key function within the firm, which can encompass innovation and creativity. Omura et al. (1993) perceive the interface between the two disciplines as having distinct areas of both difference and overlap. The differences are between traditional marketing, which operates in a consistent environment, where marketing conditions are continuous. And the firm is satisfying clearly perceived customer needs and pure entrepreneurship, which operates in an uncertain environment, where market conditions are discontinuous and the needs of market are as yet unclear. The overlap exists in two areas; one where market c onditions are continuous and entrepreneurship aids the process of identifying as yet unperceived needs and secondly in a discontinuous market where entrepreneurship guides marketing strategy to develop existing needs in a new environment. Elaine Collinson and Eleanor Shaw (2001) marketing and entrepreneurship have three key areas of interface; they are both change focused, opportunistic in nature and innovative in their approach to management. Conceptual Framework: During the last 60 years marketing thought has experienced several changes. It has evolved from production and sales centered into customer and relationship focused marketing. Instead of short-term individual transactions marketers have started to value long-lasting relationships. Interaction has proven to be more efficient than one-way communication and it has been realised that marketing is not a task of just marketing department but the whole organisation (See Gro ¨nroos, 2006.) There is no clear or unifying definition or theory of marketing in SMEs. (Simpson et al., 2006.). Motwani, Jiang and Kumar (1998) highlight the differing operational priorities of small firms, (as compared with larger organisations), and synopsise small firm characteristics as follows (p. 8): On the one hand, small firms are believed to have an edge over larger firms in flexibility, innovation, and overhead costs, while on the other, they are limited by the amount of market power, capital and managerial resources. Small firms typically have limited impact in their given markets, and limited network access (Me Gaughey, 1998). Barnes (2001) identified several drivers that enhance closeness between the small firm and the customer. These drivers include: knowing the customer personally, feeling of locality, easy accessibility, lack of bureaucracy and concentration on long-term profitability. In the context of small firms, customer orientation is a concept, which comprises customer understanding orientation and customer satisfaction focus. It seems that adoption of customer orientation may enhance the performance of small firms. It is argued small firms with higher degree of customer orientation are likely to be more profitable than their less customer-oriented counterparts. (Appiah-Adu and Singh, 1998.) Marketing in SMEs continues to evolve throughout the life-cycle of the enterprise in response to new product and market demands, while satisfying customer requirements, taking into consideration the inherent characteristics and behaviours of the owner/manager, and the size and life-cycle stage of the firm (Gilmore et al., 2001; Carson, 1993). In small enterprises, the entrepreneurs have pivotal roles in marketing. The marketing practices seem to rely on their personal contacts and are often driven by the certain way they do business (Simpson et al., 2006). They depend also on owner-managers attitude to, experience of and expertise in marketing (McCartan-Quinn and Carson, 2003). Traditionally some marketing approaches concentrate on the marketing mix. However, instead of focusing on the traditional marketing paradigm of the 4Ps (product, price, place and promotion), or the 7Ps adopted by service marketing (product, price, place, promotion, people, process and physical evidence), entrepreneurs stress the importance of promotion and word-of-mouth, and have identi ¬Ã‚ ed one of the unique selling points of their business as the nature of their personal contact with customers and their focus on the four Is (Information, Identi ¬Ã‚ cation, Innovation and Interaction) (Stokes, 2000). Typically small firms will have higher levels of creditors relative to stocks and total assets and lower levels of retained profit than larger organisations (Chittenden and Bragg, 1997). Bird (1992) and Burns (1996) offer an insight into the differing perspectives of the small business owner/manager and the bank manager. This is the situation in which, in order to obtain additional funding from the bank, the businessman agrees to provide regularly to the bank manager cash-flow forecasts, lists of outstanding debtors/ creditors and other means to evaluate assets and liabilities. The result is that valuable time must be spent with the bank manager (who probably has no hands-on experience of running a business like yours) while he tells you what you can and cannot do (Bird, 1992, p. 4). The bank manager gains little from the success of the business but stands to lose a lot if it fails (Burns, 1996, p. 186). Small business success is dependent not only on the presence of products and markets, but also on the efficacious marketing of those products within those markets (Smith, 1990). While the underlying principles of mar- keting are equally applicable to large and small firms alike, a lack of sophisticated marketing is perceived to be problematic for smaller firms (Cromie, 1991). Within the small firm, the boundary between marketing and selling becomes very blurred, as most small firms marketing takes place during the selling process (Oakey, 1991) and for many small firm owner/ managers the perception is that selling is marketing. Kuratka (1995), entrepreneurship is an area which is relevant to both small and large firms the reason why it is so often associated with small and medium enterprises is that, firstly entrepreneurial activity is often more visible in the smaller firm an secondly, when firms experience growth it can be difficult to sustain an entrepreneurial focus in a multi layered management structure. In addition to organizational structure, the entrepreneurial personality has direct effect on the way in which management is undertaken (Chell, 1986). Entrepreneurs, by their nature, will focus on various opportunities at once and are not easily convinced by the sequential, structured approach to management, which is the focus of most management/ marketing texts (OBrien and Hart, 1999). A lack of capital is frequently the main deterrent to the prospective entrepreneur (Karger, 1981) with undercapitalisation recognised as a major weakness of many new and small firms (Barber and Manger, 1997), often leading to their demise (Job, 1983). Growth issues and the subsequent impact on resources and skill requirements is a key area of current research in entrepreneurial marketing activity (Collinson and Quinn, 1999). Hills et al. (2008) recently investigated the evolution and development of this scholarship and found that indeed, marketing among entrepreneurs deviates from mainstream marketing. Carson (1993, p. 12) describes EM as the experience, knowledge, communication abilities and judgment of the owner-manager, key competencies on which marketing effectiveness depends, while Zontanos and Anderson (2004) offer the four Ps: person, process, purpose, and practices, as a better frame for understanding marketing in entrepreneurial firms. Less formal organisational structures, such as those within SMEs, have been identified as being conducive to innovation, as they encourage a corporate culture which enables participation, networking, inclusion, and experimentation throughout the organisation (Johne and Davies, 2000; Carroll, 2002). Moreover, the environmental uncertainties and challenges faced by SMEs may prompt an innovative response to establish competitive advantage (Ashford and Towers, 2001; McAdam et al., 2000). Burns and Harrison (1996) reiterate that the reason for starting the business is the key differentiator between the small business owner/manager and the entrepreneur, a view which is compatible with Burns (1996), who distinguishes between two different kinds of small businesses; the life-style business set up to provide an adequate level of income for the founder; and the entrepreneurial business which is founded to grow. OShea (1998) distinguishes between entrepreneurial and non-entrepreneurial small businesses from the perspective of their likely impact on economic equilibrium, with entrepreneurial firms exerting a spontaneous, discontinuous and a qualitative influence, and non-entrepreneurial ones representing a static, inert and quantitative influence. Research Questions: This research aims at identifying the differences between marketing by small firms marketing in SMEs. Will explore the commonalities differences if there are any in marketing in SMEs entrepreneurial marketing. Will try to describe present in an understandable manner the real just of entrepreneurial marketing its characteristics. Studying the market practices in both the manufacturing service SMEs in Multan. Will try to find relationship/relationships in marketing practices (right from product development and selling), relationship with others, entrepreneurial back ground, training and education and growth expectations. Will try to develop a model of marketing in Pakistani SMEs vis-à  -vis their capital restraints. Will also explore the role of human capital social capital in determining the shape of market in SMEs/ Entrepreneurial firms. Will identify areas of future research in this field. Efficacious marketing of the products in market ensures the success of firm. Marketing in SMEs continuously change throughout the life cycle. Interpersonal contacts and 4Is (Information, Identification, Innovation and Interaction) are source of entrepreneur promotion techniques. Customer satisfaction customer orientation have strong association with success of SMEs. WOM (Word of mouth) is most influential way of promotion and its reliability in SMEs. Methodology: Population: SMEs with maximum revenues of 50 million Rs/ Anum will be our population. Firms from retail, manufacturing other service industries will be part of population. However SMEs whose major reliance is exporting will not be part, only those SMEs whos major focus and source of revenue is domestic market are included. Moreover micro enterprises will not be part of population. Sample: 2 or 3 categories of SMEs will be developing based on sales/ number of employees. Firm belonging to service and manufacturing sector will be selected probably the sample size between 15 to 18 case studies with about 5 case studies in each category. Analysis will be templates used by Robert.K.Yin (2003a, 2003b) will be used to develop a theory of small firms/entrepreneurial marketing of firms operating in Multan.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

How Does Steinbeck Present Curly’s Wife

Of mice and men’ is one of Nobel Prize winning author John Steinbecks most poignant. ‘ Set in the 1930s during the Great Depression it features two farm workers called George ad Lenny. The travel around together in search of work sharing a dream of a place of their own- a small ranch where they can live and work for themselves. It tells the story of how violence may erupt to destroy those dreams. Curley’s wife- as she is known to the audience- is the only women on the ranch. Without the identity of a name she is known only by association of the man she doesn’t even like. Despite her marriage to Curley she flaunts herself around the ranch in inappropriate clothing ‘she had full rouged lips†¦She wore a cotton housedress and red mules,’ flirting with ranch hands and is conscious of the effect she has on men. These clothes and her behaviour I think are designed to provoke interest and attention rather than to invite intimacy. She seems preoccupied with strategies to avoid detection from her husband and manages this by continuously asking of his whereabouts. ‘Have any of you boys seen Curley? ’ Like George, Lenny and later on Candy, Curley’s wife has a dream despite it being one of great contrast to theirs. She has an ambition to work in films ‘coulda been in the movies and worn nice clothes’ and this is no doubt stemmed from her desire for attention and is linked to her loneliness and insecurities on the ranch as she bitterly resents not being treated as an individual. Men make promises to her ‘he says he was gonna out me in the movies’ but she appears to lack the intelligence to realise the emptiness of their promises. The perceptions we make of Curley’s wife are corrupted from the views of the ranch hands. Because sexuality is her only weapon she is referred to as ‘jailbait’ and ‘ a tart’ ‘Jesus what a tramp. George has reason to be weary of her presence especially with Lenny around and the incident in Weed. ‘Listen to me you crazy bastard†¦ Don’t you even look at that bitch Curley’s wife is first presented to us on page 32 ‘ the rectangle of sunshine in the doorway was cut off’ a girl was standing there looking in’ Curley’s wife has brought darkness supposedly symbolising the potential danger of her character. During the last chapter Steinbeck cleverly attempts to alter our perception of Curley’s wife by portraying her in a different light. During chapter five, Lenny has just killed one of Slim’s puppies by clumsily petting it. His tendency to inflict damage through trying to show affection is become more prominent. Steinbeck creates an atmosphere of tragedy and doom in which the reader is aware of Lenny’s anxiety ‘and rattled the halter chains. ’ Curley’s wife enters wearing ‘a bright cotton dress’ and ‘red ostrich feathers’ and the reader already knows of Lennies attraction the colour red which creates a sense of painful inevitability. Her face is ‘made up’ and her ‘curls’ are in place†¦ This suggested to me that she has obviously made herself as seductive as possible. Curley’s wife is attracted to Lenny because he has got the better of her husband. I think she has worked out an arrangement to ensure that Lenny and her will be alone without interruption but Lenny is acutely aware of George’s instructions to avoid conversation with her aswell as the consequences of not being able to ‘tend he rabbits. ’ She is desperate to talk to him ‘you’re a nice guy, why can’t I talk to you? ’ and when getting the chance to do so the words pour out of her in her passion for communication although Lenny barely listens. Here she describes her desire to be an actress, her naivete in thinking her ‘old lady’ had stolen the letter and why she married Curley and not liking him. Yet it is as this point that despite her provocative dress sense and her sensuality we realise that she wants only to talk to Lenny ‘why can’t I talk to you? I never talk to nobody. I get awful lonely’ and comfort him when he tells her how he has killed the puppy, ‘don’t you worry none. ’ Steinbeck has cleverly created a more passionate portrayal, someone we can feel sympathy for. At the point where Curley’s wife offers for Lenny to stroke her hair ‘feel right round there, feel how soft it is’ the audience are uncertain as to whether this is an innocent, childish act referring to its texture or that she is knowingly leading Lenny towards a sexual encounter. It is also apparent at this period, of how young she actually is, the act of stroking hair is very harmless and childlike, not what we would expect of her character earlier in the novel. She is likened to a little girl who wants to feel physical contact without sexual trace. When Lenny is petting Curley’s wife’s hair he proceeds in ‘mussing it up’ I noticed how she only struggled when she came to this realisation again pointing to her self-image and vanity. Lenny mistakenly breaks Curley’s wife’s neck and is fatally killed. Lenny escapes and we are left with a desciption of the setting of the barn and of her, ‘and the meanness and the planning’s and the discontent and the ache for attention were all gone from her face’ here Steinbeck sums up everything we already know about her but in a way that transforms the way we think about her. Still with flawless skin she appears ‘pretty and simple†¦sweet and young’ a complete contrast to what is perceived of her in earlier chapters. I think her death could have just as well of been caused by Lenny’s unthinking roughness as by any decisions of hers that things had gone to far. A ‘shepherd bitch’ symbolises an entity that Curley’s wife will never possess, this being children ‘jumped in among the puppies. ’ Curley’s wife is undoubtedly one of the most poignant characters in the novel and one that Steinbeck portrays his feeling for than any other character.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Jessica Swindle Essay

In this time and age, a lot of people are struggling for their lives. We can never deny the fact how tough it is to deal with the circumstances that come along our way and it is imperative for us to weigh our capabilities in order to make our best and live our lives to the best of our abilities. As Merwin epitomized his thoughts on his â€Å"Eskimo Poem†, he freely exemplify the perception of what it entails to live in this world and at the same time possess the grip to what is in store for you in the future. At the beginning of the poem, the tender emotion shoot in as one wonders what life could bring each and every single of his life. But along the way, to some extent there is bit scepticism as the challenges hinders the happiness of a person. â€Å"But I am leaving the shore in my skin boat, it came to me that I was in danger and now the small troubles look big† (Mervin), during the moments that we feel we are alone with our predicament and that we can no longer bear the confrontation of life we tend to look for another way wherein we can build our lives again. Indeed, as the poem utters â€Å"and the ache that comes from the things I have to do every day big† (Merwin), it only means one thing, and that is to find alternative measures to make our lives better. In this regard, it was thoroughly elucidated how trials expands and it is only our hope that can uplift our spirit. â€Å"But only one thing is great only one, this in the hut by the path to see the day coming out of its mother and the light filling the world† (Merwin), positively, at the end of the day there is always a light that will shed our fears and will shelter our minds and hearts. Like the poem, we should find contentment with our lives even if it will take to some place and to different level of maturity. Acceptance of dare could be a proliferating factor in order for us to be great in the paths that we are taking.

Friday, January 3, 2020

The Manifest Destiny Essay - 884 Words

The Manifest Destiny is the idea of continental expansion by the United States, from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans, which naturally occurred out of a deep want and need to explore and conquer new lands and establish new borders. This idea contributed to several wars, including the US-Mexican War. Mexico and the United States had its share of territorial issues. With only four more days of his presidency, on March 1, 1845, President John Tyler signed the Texas annexation bill. When the United States formally offered annexation to Texas in 1845, Mexico, protested. On December 29, 1845, Texas was formally admitted to the Union. Mexico refused to accept the loss of Texas, as written in the Treaty of Velasco that was created after the†¦show more content†¦President Polk received word that Mexican forces had ambushed two of General Taylors companies along the Rio Grande. On May 11, 1846, President Polk asked Congress to declare war on Mexico, stating the following: After reiterated menaces, Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States, has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American Soil. She has proclaimed that hostilities have commenced, and that the two nations are at war. (1) Two days later, the US Congress overwhelmingly votes in favor of Pr esident James K. Polks request to declare war on Mexico. American military forces took up several major campaigns in the course of the war resulting in significant battles that occurred throughout the region. American Brigadier General Stephen Kearney led a small force to seize Santa Fe and the New Mexico territory, and then marched west to California. There he met up with an American force and eventually secured the completion of the Bear Flag Revolt; American settlers declared their independence from Mexico. American General Taylor fought General Ampudia and his Mexican troops, who surrendered control of Monterey, which enabled General Taylor to secure another essential city as he proceeded southward towards central Mexico. Former Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna returned to Mexico from exile and trained a new army of men to oppose the invaders.Show MoreRelatedEssay On Manifest Destiny1709 Words   |  7 Pagesone of many seminal events in the history of the United States. However, it began the debt we are still in today; t he Louisiana Purchase gave us the land that began the Manifest Destiny. â€Å"The term Manifest Destiny originated in the 1840’s when John L. O’Sullivan said in an article that it was the American colonist’s Manifest Destiny to spread over the continent and that God had given them the land for the sole purpose of multiplying and free development.† ( staff). It was this philosophyRead MoreThe Manifest Destiny Essay1076 Words   |  5 Pagesfull swing by the 1840s. 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