Monday, January 27, 2020

Entrepreneurial Marketing And Marketing In Small Firms

Entrepreneurial Marketing And Marketing In Small Firms Introduction: Researchers widely agree that marketing in small firms differ from that of their larger counterparts (e.g. Fillis, 2002; Gilmore et al., 2001; Hill, 2001a; Coviello et al., 2000.) Stokes (2000) adds that in small firms, marketing is used for the needs of the moment and only little attention is paid to plans, strategies and analysis. They are close to their markets, have great flexibility which they value (Evans and Moutinho, 1999), have the capacity to operate on slim margins, and can instigate decisions quickly (Rogers, 1990). The marketing function in SMEs is hindered by constraints such as poor cash flow, lack of marketing expertise, business size, tactical customer-related problems, and strategic customer-related problems (Doole et al., 2006; Chaston, 1998; Carson, 1985). Yet, despite such restrictions, SMEs successfully use marketing to generate sales (Guersen, 1997; Romano and Ratnatunga, 1995). Motwani, Jiang and Kumar (1998) highlight the differing operational priorities of small firms, (as compared with larger organisations), and synopsise small firm characteristics as follows: On the one hand, small firms are believed to have an edge over larger firms in flexibility, innovation, and overhead costs, while on the other, they are limited by the amount of market power, capital and managerial resources. Despite the differences, it has been noted that the basic marketing concepts, such as segmentation, customer orientation, targeting, positioning and seeking for competitive advantage apply to small as well as to large enterprises (Hogarth-Scott et al., 1996). Scholars note that both marketing theories and entrepreneurship theory privilege the notion of value creation, that is, the notion that elements are combined in a manner that results in the provision of value to the user (Morris et al., 2002). Marketing has much to offer the study of entrepreneurship (Murray 1981; Hills 1987) and likewise entrepreneurship can look to marketing as the key function within the firm, which can encompass innovation and creativity. Omura et al. (1993) perceive the interface between the two disciplines as having distinct areas of both difference and overlap. The differences are between traditional marketing, which operates in a consistent environment, where marketing conditions are continuous. And the firm is satisfying clearly perceived customer needs and pure entrepreneurship, which operates in an uncertain environment, where market conditions are discontinuous and the needs of market are as yet unclear. The overlap exists in two areas; one where market c onditions are continuous and entrepreneurship aids the process of identifying as yet unperceived needs and secondly in a discontinuous market where entrepreneurship guides marketing strategy to develop existing needs in a new environment. Elaine Collinson and Eleanor Shaw (2001) marketing and entrepreneurship have three key areas of interface; they are both change focused, opportunistic in nature and innovative in their approach to management. Conceptual Framework: During the last 60 years marketing thought has experienced several changes. It has evolved from production and sales centered into customer and relationship focused marketing. Instead of short-term individual transactions marketers have started to value long-lasting relationships. Interaction has proven to be more efficient than one-way communication and it has been realised that marketing is not a task of just marketing department but the whole organisation (See Gro ¨nroos, 2006.) There is no clear or unifying definition or theory of marketing in SMEs. (Simpson et al., 2006.). Motwani, Jiang and Kumar (1998) highlight the differing operational priorities of small firms, (as compared with larger organisations), and synopsise small firm characteristics as follows (p. 8): On the one hand, small firms are believed to have an edge over larger firms in flexibility, innovation, and overhead costs, while on the other, they are limited by the amount of market power, capital and managerial resources. Small firms typically have limited impact in their given markets, and limited network access (Me Gaughey, 1998). Barnes (2001) identified several drivers that enhance closeness between the small firm and the customer. These drivers include: knowing the customer personally, feeling of locality, easy accessibility, lack of bureaucracy and concentration on long-term profitability. In the context of small firms, customer orientation is a concept, which comprises customer understanding orientation and customer satisfaction focus. It seems that adoption of customer orientation may enhance the performance of small firms. It is argued small firms with higher degree of customer orientation are likely to be more profitable than their less customer-oriented counterparts. (Appiah-Adu and Singh, 1998.) Marketing in SMEs continues to evolve throughout the life-cycle of the enterprise in response to new product and market demands, while satisfying customer requirements, taking into consideration the inherent characteristics and behaviours of the owner/manager, and the size and life-cycle stage of the firm (Gilmore et al., 2001; Carson, 1993). In small enterprises, the entrepreneurs have pivotal roles in marketing. The marketing practices seem to rely on their personal contacts and are often driven by the certain way they do business (Simpson et al., 2006). They depend also on owner-managers attitude to, experience of and expertise in marketing (McCartan-Quinn and Carson, 2003). Traditionally some marketing approaches concentrate on the marketing mix. However, instead of focusing on the traditional marketing paradigm of the 4Ps (product, price, place and promotion), or the 7Ps adopted by service marketing (product, price, place, promotion, people, process and physical evidence), entrepreneurs stress the importance of promotion and word-of-mouth, and have identi ¬Ã‚ ed one of the unique selling points of their business as the nature of their personal contact with customers and their focus on the four Is (Information, Identi ¬Ã‚ cation, Innovation and Interaction) (Stokes, 2000). Typically small firms will have higher levels of creditors relative to stocks and total assets and lower levels of retained profit than larger organisations (Chittenden and Bragg, 1997). Bird (1992) and Burns (1996) offer an insight into the differing perspectives of the small business owner/manager and the bank manager. This is the situation in which, in order to obtain additional funding from the bank, the businessman agrees to provide regularly to the bank manager cash-flow forecasts, lists of outstanding debtors/ creditors and other means to evaluate assets and liabilities. The result is that valuable time must be spent with the bank manager (who probably has no hands-on experience of running a business like yours) while he tells you what you can and cannot do (Bird, 1992, p. 4). The bank manager gains little from the success of the business but stands to lose a lot if it fails (Burns, 1996, p. 186). Small business success is dependent not only on the presence of products and markets, but also on the efficacious marketing of those products within those markets (Smith, 1990). While the underlying principles of mar- keting are equally applicable to large and small firms alike, a lack of sophisticated marketing is perceived to be problematic for smaller firms (Cromie, 1991). Within the small firm, the boundary between marketing and selling becomes very blurred, as most small firms marketing takes place during the selling process (Oakey, 1991) and for many small firm owner/ managers the perception is that selling is marketing. Kuratka (1995), entrepreneurship is an area which is relevant to both small and large firms the reason why it is so often associated with small and medium enterprises is that, firstly entrepreneurial activity is often more visible in the smaller firm an secondly, when firms experience growth it can be difficult to sustain an entrepreneurial focus in a multi layered management structure. In addition to organizational structure, the entrepreneurial personality has direct effect on the way in which management is undertaken (Chell, 1986). Entrepreneurs, by their nature, will focus on various opportunities at once and are not easily convinced by the sequential, structured approach to management, which is the focus of most management/ marketing texts (OBrien and Hart, 1999). A lack of capital is frequently the main deterrent to the prospective entrepreneur (Karger, 1981) with undercapitalisation recognised as a major weakness of many new and small firms (Barber and Manger, 1997), often leading to their demise (Job, 1983). Growth issues and the subsequent impact on resources and skill requirements is a key area of current research in entrepreneurial marketing activity (Collinson and Quinn, 1999). Hills et al. (2008) recently investigated the evolution and development of this scholarship and found that indeed, marketing among entrepreneurs deviates from mainstream marketing. Carson (1993, p. 12) describes EM as the experience, knowledge, communication abilities and judgment of the owner-manager, key competencies on which marketing effectiveness depends, while Zontanos and Anderson (2004) offer the four Ps: person, process, purpose, and practices, as a better frame for understanding marketing in entrepreneurial firms. Less formal organisational structures, such as those within SMEs, have been identified as being conducive to innovation, as they encourage a corporate culture which enables participation, networking, inclusion, and experimentation throughout the organisation (Johne and Davies, 2000; Carroll, 2002). Moreover, the environmental uncertainties and challenges faced by SMEs may prompt an innovative response to establish competitive advantage (Ashford and Towers, 2001; McAdam et al., 2000). Burns and Harrison (1996) reiterate that the reason for starting the business is the key differentiator between the small business owner/manager and the entrepreneur, a view which is compatible with Burns (1996), who distinguishes between two different kinds of small businesses; the life-style business set up to provide an adequate level of income for the founder; and the entrepreneurial business which is founded to grow. OShea (1998) distinguishes between entrepreneurial and non-entrepreneurial small businesses from the perspective of their likely impact on economic equilibrium, with entrepreneurial firms exerting a spontaneous, discontinuous and a qualitative influence, and non-entrepreneurial ones representing a static, inert and quantitative influence. Research Questions: This research aims at identifying the differences between marketing by small firms marketing in SMEs. Will explore the commonalities differences if there are any in marketing in SMEs entrepreneurial marketing. Will try to describe present in an understandable manner the real just of entrepreneurial marketing its characteristics. Studying the market practices in both the manufacturing service SMEs in Multan. Will try to find relationship/relationships in marketing practices (right from product development and selling), relationship with others, entrepreneurial back ground, training and education and growth expectations. Will try to develop a model of marketing in Pakistani SMEs vis-à  -vis their capital restraints. Will also explore the role of human capital social capital in determining the shape of market in SMEs/ Entrepreneurial firms. Will identify areas of future research in this field. Efficacious marketing of the products in market ensures the success of firm. Marketing in SMEs continuously change throughout the life cycle. Interpersonal contacts and 4Is (Information, Identification, Innovation and Interaction) are source of entrepreneur promotion techniques. Customer satisfaction customer orientation have strong association with success of SMEs. WOM (Word of mouth) is most influential way of promotion and its reliability in SMEs. Methodology: Population: SMEs with maximum revenues of 50 million Rs/ Anum will be our population. Firms from retail, manufacturing other service industries will be part of population. However SMEs whose major reliance is exporting will not be part, only those SMEs whos major focus and source of revenue is domestic market are included. Moreover micro enterprises will not be part of population. Sample: 2 or 3 categories of SMEs will be developing based on sales/ number of employees. Firm belonging to service and manufacturing sector will be selected probably the sample size between 15 to 18 case studies with about 5 case studies in each category. Analysis will be templates used by Robert.K.Yin (2003a, 2003b) will be used to develop a theory of small firms/entrepreneurial marketing of firms operating in Multan.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

How Does Steinbeck Present Curly’s Wife

Of mice and men’ is one of Nobel Prize winning author John Steinbecks most poignant. ‘ Set in the 1930s during the Great Depression it features two farm workers called George ad Lenny. The travel around together in search of work sharing a dream of a place of their own- a small ranch where they can live and work for themselves. It tells the story of how violence may erupt to destroy those dreams. Curley’s wife- as she is known to the audience- is the only women on the ranch. Without the identity of a name she is known only by association of the man she doesn’t even like. Despite her marriage to Curley she flaunts herself around the ranch in inappropriate clothing ‘she had full rouged lips†¦She wore a cotton housedress and red mules,’ flirting with ranch hands and is conscious of the effect she has on men. These clothes and her behaviour I think are designed to provoke interest and attention rather than to invite intimacy. She seems preoccupied with strategies to avoid detection from her husband and manages this by continuously asking of his whereabouts. ‘Have any of you boys seen Curley? ’ Like George, Lenny and later on Candy, Curley’s wife has a dream despite it being one of great contrast to theirs. She has an ambition to work in films ‘coulda been in the movies and worn nice clothes’ and this is no doubt stemmed from her desire for attention and is linked to her loneliness and insecurities on the ranch as she bitterly resents not being treated as an individual. Men make promises to her ‘he says he was gonna out me in the movies’ but she appears to lack the intelligence to realise the emptiness of their promises. The perceptions we make of Curley’s wife are corrupted from the views of the ranch hands. Because sexuality is her only weapon she is referred to as ‘jailbait’ and ‘ a tart’ ‘Jesus what a tramp. George has reason to be weary of her presence especially with Lenny around and the incident in Weed. ‘Listen to me you crazy bastard†¦ Don’t you even look at that bitch Curley’s wife is first presented to us on page 32 ‘ the rectangle of sunshine in the doorway was cut off’ a girl was standing there looking in’ Curley’s wife has brought darkness supposedly symbolising the potential danger of her character. During the last chapter Steinbeck cleverly attempts to alter our perception of Curley’s wife by portraying her in a different light. During chapter five, Lenny has just killed one of Slim’s puppies by clumsily petting it. His tendency to inflict damage through trying to show affection is become more prominent. Steinbeck creates an atmosphere of tragedy and doom in which the reader is aware of Lenny’s anxiety ‘and rattled the halter chains. ’ Curley’s wife enters wearing ‘a bright cotton dress’ and ‘red ostrich feathers’ and the reader already knows of Lennies attraction the colour red which creates a sense of painful inevitability. Her face is ‘made up’ and her ‘curls’ are in place†¦ This suggested to me that she has obviously made herself as seductive as possible. Curley’s wife is attracted to Lenny because he has got the better of her husband. I think she has worked out an arrangement to ensure that Lenny and her will be alone without interruption but Lenny is acutely aware of George’s instructions to avoid conversation with her aswell as the consequences of not being able to ‘tend he rabbits. ’ She is desperate to talk to him ‘you’re a nice guy, why can’t I talk to you? ’ and when getting the chance to do so the words pour out of her in her passion for communication although Lenny barely listens. Here she describes her desire to be an actress, her naivete in thinking her ‘old lady’ had stolen the letter and why she married Curley and not liking him. Yet it is as this point that despite her provocative dress sense and her sensuality we realise that she wants only to talk to Lenny ‘why can’t I talk to you? I never talk to nobody. I get awful lonely’ and comfort him when he tells her how he has killed the puppy, ‘don’t you worry none. ’ Steinbeck has cleverly created a more passionate portrayal, someone we can feel sympathy for. At the point where Curley’s wife offers for Lenny to stroke her hair ‘feel right round there, feel how soft it is’ the audience are uncertain as to whether this is an innocent, childish act referring to its texture or that she is knowingly leading Lenny towards a sexual encounter. It is also apparent at this period, of how young she actually is, the act of stroking hair is very harmless and childlike, not what we would expect of her character earlier in the novel. She is likened to a little girl who wants to feel physical contact without sexual trace. When Lenny is petting Curley’s wife’s hair he proceeds in ‘mussing it up’ I noticed how she only struggled when she came to this realisation again pointing to her self-image and vanity. Lenny mistakenly breaks Curley’s wife’s neck and is fatally killed. Lenny escapes and we are left with a desciption of the setting of the barn and of her, ‘and the meanness and the planning’s and the discontent and the ache for attention were all gone from her face’ here Steinbeck sums up everything we already know about her but in a way that transforms the way we think about her. Still with flawless skin she appears ‘pretty and simple†¦sweet and young’ a complete contrast to what is perceived of her in earlier chapters. I think her death could have just as well of been caused by Lenny’s unthinking roughness as by any decisions of hers that things had gone to far. A ‘shepherd bitch’ symbolises an entity that Curley’s wife will never possess, this being children ‘jumped in among the puppies. ’ Curley’s wife is undoubtedly one of the most poignant characters in the novel and one that Steinbeck portrays his feeling for than any other character.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Jessica Swindle Essay

In this time and age, a lot of people are struggling for their lives. We can never deny the fact how tough it is to deal with the circumstances that come along our way and it is imperative for us to weigh our capabilities in order to make our best and live our lives to the best of our abilities. As Merwin epitomized his thoughts on his â€Å"Eskimo Poem†, he freely exemplify the perception of what it entails to live in this world and at the same time possess the grip to what is in store for you in the future. At the beginning of the poem, the tender emotion shoot in as one wonders what life could bring each and every single of his life. But along the way, to some extent there is bit scepticism as the challenges hinders the happiness of a person. â€Å"But I am leaving the shore in my skin boat, it came to me that I was in danger and now the small troubles look big† (Mervin), during the moments that we feel we are alone with our predicament and that we can no longer bear the confrontation of life we tend to look for another way wherein we can build our lives again. Indeed, as the poem utters â€Å"and the ache that comes from the things I have to do every day big† (Merwin), it only means one thing, and that is to find alternative measures to make our lives better. In this regard, it was thoroughly elucidated how trials expands and it is only our hope that can uplift our spirit. â€Å"But only one thing is great only one, this in the hut by the path to see the day coming out of its mother and the light filling the world† (Merwin), positively, at the end of the day there is always a light that will shed our fears and will shelter our minds and hearts. Like the poem, we should find contentment with our lives even if it will take to some place and to different level of maturity. Acceptance of dare could be a proliferating factor in order for us to be great in the paths that we are taking.

Friday, January 3, 2020

The Manifest Destiny Essay - 884 Words

The Manifest Destiny is the idea of continental expansion by the United States, from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans, which naturally occurred out of a deep want and need to explore and conquer new lands and establish new borders. This idea contributed to several wars, including the US-Mexican War. Mexico and the United States had its share of territorial issues. With only four more days of his presidency, on March 1, 1845, President John Tyler signed the Texas annexation bill. When the United States formally offered annexation to Texas in 1845, Mexico, protested. On December 29, 1845, Texas was formally admitted to the Union. Mexico refused to accept the loss of Texas, as written in the Treaty of Velasco that was created after the†¦show more content†¦President Polk received word that Mexican forces had ambushed two of General Taylors companies along the Rio Grande. On May 11, 1846, President Polk asked Congress to declare war on Mexico, stating the following: After reiterated menaces, Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States, has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American Soil. She has proclaimed that hostilities have commenced, and that the two nations are at war. (1) Two days later, the US Congress overwhelmingly votes in favor of Pr esident James K. Polks request to declare war on Mexico. American military forces took up several major campaigns in the course of the war resulting in significant battles that occurred throughout the region. American Brigadier General Stephen Kearney led a small force to seize Santa Fe and the New Mexico territory, and then marched west to California. There he met up with an American force and eventually secured the completion of the Bear Flag Revolt; American settlers declared their independence from Mexico. American General Taylor fought General Ampudia and his Mexican troops, who surrendered control of Monterey, which enabled General Taylor to secure another essential city as he proceeded southward towards central Mexico. Former Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna returned to Mexico from exile and trained a new army of men to oppose the invaders.Show MoreRelatedEssay On Manifest Destiny1709 Words   |  7 Pagesone of many seminal events in the history of the United States. However, it began the debt we are still in today; t he Louisiana Purchase gave us the land that began the Manifest Destiny. â€Å"The term Manifest Destiny originated in the 1840’s when John L. O’Sullivan said in an article that it was the American colonist’s Manifest Destiny to spread over the continent and that God had given them the land for the sole purpose of multiplying and free development.† ( staff). It was this philosophyRead MoreThe Manifest Destiny Essay1076 Words   |  5 Pagesfull swing by the 1840s. 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