Thursday, February 20, 2020

Compare and contrast aspects of psychodynamic and cognitive Essay

Compare and contrast aspects of psychodynamic and cognitive theoretical approaches to counselling - Essay Example Traumatic memories of childhood are recorded in the unconscious mind and these are reminded in the individual until it becomes a cause of sickness and emotional disorders in adulthood. The belief that psychological factors can cause some sickness or malfunctioning became a popular concept during the time of Freud. Freud became phenomenal when he first announced the science of psychoanalysis. It was new then but his patients were healed and freed of their illnesses because of his precise diagnosis. Although his theory focused more on the sexual libido and the oedipal complex, they were at first unopposed and became the basis for treatment of many illnesses. Stress or anxiety, according to Freud, was a primary cause of sickness in man. Riley says that these unconscious events of the pasts were discovered through â€Å"techniques such as free association, the interpretation of dreams, thoughts and feelings emerging through reveries on the couch and nothing slips of the tongue (known as ‘Freudian slips’), misreadings and the forgetting of names† (Riley, p. 5). ... Stress can mean anxiety, arousal, fear, or burnout. This particular phenomenon causes maladies like mental illness, cancer, cardiovascular disease, but also common cold. There is a relational link between arousal and stress to metabolic rate. When we are active, or involved in sports, our metabolic rate rises, along with gross measures of the heart and respiratory rates. When stress is experienced, metabolic rate also rises. Ways to determine if an organism is activated or aroused include physiological measure, where the â€Å"organism’s overt behaviour may be used as basis for evaluation† (Pargman, 2006, p. 3). We can measure or observe the physiological component. We have the nervous system which is composed of the central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system is comprised of the brain, spinal cord and its branches. The automatic nervous system is composed of the head, pelvic, and sympathetic divisions. The three divisions of the autonomic nervous system are in counterbalancing act. They have some control on the vital functions of the body. The central nervous system on the other hand interferes in cases of emergency – it sends impulses to the autonomic system as soon as it perceives danger. The perception of fear in particular situations can provide thoughts. For example, a musician may think that he/she will not be able to perform well; she becomes afraid. This will send impulses to the brain. Anxiety may come in and the performance will be greatly affected. There are theoretical perspectives in determining stress causality, these are: psychoanalytic orientations, learning orientations, sociological orientations, and personological orientations (Pargman, 2006, p. 30). Freud called traumatic anxiety the excess libido

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Research design paper Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Design paper - Research Proposal Example United States ranks near the bottom in terms of low voter turnout2. This research seeks to institute whether campaigns, voter mobilization, voter education and voting practices and barriers affect voter turnout in presidential elections in the United States of America. The research also seeks to explain how the aforementioned variables affect voter turnout levels. Previous studies have provided some information as to why some registered citizens resolve to vote while others do not. However, such research has not explained sufficiently whether voter mobilization, voter education and voting practices and barriers affect voter turnout in presidential elections in the United States of America, and how these variables determine voter turnout levels in presidential elections. This study adopts the use of secondary sources to test hypotheses. Voter turnout in every subsequent US presidential election has been higher than the previous turnout. Finding reliable inferences pertaining to the re search question will be crucial in predicting how various factors may affect future elections. Voter outcome speculators will also be able to make their predictions with greater degrees of precision. Future researchers may use the information acquired by this study in their surveys. The findings of this study are vital because electoral bodies may also use the inferences to implement changes that will ensure high voter turnout levels in future. The key terms in this study include voter turn out and voter mobilization. Voter turnout is the absolute of people who vote in the election, mostly measured in percentage3. Voter mobilization is influencing voters to pay attention to campaigns and vote in favour of a certain party. Literature Review Voter turn out in presidential elections is determined by several factors. Eligibility formalities and campaign stimuli are some of the determinants of voter turn out. Also, stiff competition increases the chances of most of the eligible and regis tered voters to vote. The United States of America prevents many or most of the convicted offenders from voting4. Such suppressed votes may have made a substantial difference in U.S national and local electoral outcomes. There are also pitfalls over the rights of immigrants to the ballot. Most studies have taken eligibility rules as a given4. Voting participation can be determined by socioeconomic factors such as income and education. Voting registration and turnout can also be affected by the amount of campaign stimuli in the context of political mobilization5. According to Dycke-Norris, the two most important factors that affect voting are the presidential candidate and the nature of the times6. Other factors that affect voter turnout include formalities for the inclusion in the electoral registers6. However, it is important to note that the more the people are registered to vote, the larger the number of those who are likely not to vote. Consequently, this may reduce the voter tu rnout levels in an election. Competitiveness between races may lead to a high vote turnout, especially when candidates come from either of these races. Voter education also affects the level of voter turnout. For instance, it was noted that education levels of voters determined whether they turned to vote in a presidential elec